THE TIBESTI MASSIF is a giant triangular massif located in southern LIBYA and northern CHAD.
It lifts abruptly out of the SAHARA DESERT and is visually impressive.
The massif covers an area of over 38,610 square mi (100,000 square km); over 11,583 square mi (30,000 square km) of this area consists of volcanic rock.
The Tibesti Massif is separated from the other Saharan massifs to the east and west by deep basins of sedimentary rock.
The highest mountain in the Sahara Desert is part of the Tibesti Massif.
It is an extinct volcano, reaching 11,205 ft (3,415 m) above sea level, called Emi Koussi.
It sits in the center of the Tibesti Massif and the crater is 11.8 mi (19 km) wide and 3,937 ft (1,200 m) deep.
Emi Koussi is one of several stratovolcanos on Tibesti Massif and is almost perfectly intact, with many fine examples of fumaroles, or vapor vents.
Tibesti is only one of several massifs in the Sahara Desert.
The largest massifs in the Sahara are Tibesti, Hoggar in southern ALGERIA, and Jebel Marra in western SUDAN.
These massifs formed in the Mesozoic and Tertiary periods with major uplifting in the Earth's crust.
Their formation continued through the Tertiary period and into the Quaternary period, with massive outpourings of lava and more uplifting.
Only one of the volcanoes on Tibesti has shown any recent stirrings.
The rest are considered extinct.
Radiocarbon dating from the granite rocks of Tibesti Massif indicates that it was formed about 500 to 600 million years ago.
LAKES AND RIVERS Like most of the rest of the Saharan area, Tibesti once had a wetter climate with many lakes and rivers.
About 12,000 years ago this cycle ended and the area is now parched and dry.
The landscapes of the area consist mainly of massive rock formations and some sand.
Where there was once water flowing off Emi Koussi and the Tibesti Massif, many sharp valleys formed, diverging in all directions.
During an expedition in 1907, Captain J.
Tilho found within one of the Tibesti water holes a living crocodile, a survivor of the residual fauna of that wetter time.
There are no such creatures existent today because of the climatic changes.
With the change in climate and increase in winds, megagrooves formed around the base of the upland areas of Tibesti and aligned with the dominant northern winds.
These grooves are up to 32.8 ft (10 m) deep, closely spaced, and parallel to each other.
These megagrooves can actually be seen from space and are one of the most unusual landscapes on our planet.
- Spain is inviting to go shopping to the “unexplored” cities
"By 2019 the country is planning to increase their income up to 5 billion euro from selling goods and services to the tourists.
Spain is quite a hyped up place where one can go shopping. Still, the country’s annual profit reaches 1.6 billion euro from holidaymakers. Madrid and Barcelona are considered to be highly-visited touristic cities, which is about 37-47% of tourist-shoppers accordingly. The rest is dispersed among the other cities in Spain.
However, the local authorities are not so satisfied with such a situation. They intend to build up the population settlements with shopping streets which were before unknown to the foreign shoppers. It is said that in the near future the experienced tourists will realize the shopping capabilities of the country, besides the two most attractive cities, Madrid and Barcelona. "
- Is it possible to go on vacation to Turkey following the shocks
"The Ministry of Foreign Affairs denies the information that recently emerged saying that the Ministry is planning to ban Russians to enter the country.
There were two explosions that took place in Ankara during the meeting for peace between the Turkish authorities and Kurdistan Workers Party. The terrorist attack claimed the lives of 95 people and 250 people got injured.
Following the attack national media channels have reported that the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs started elaborating recommendations for the Russians not to visit the country which has experienced the terror attacks.
However, on Sunday the rumors were denied by the media saying that this information is found to be untrue.
Experts believe that such decision is justified. Terror attacks took place in the Turkish capital, which is seldom visited by Russians or is not visited at all. Our citizens more often spend their holidays at the Mediterranean Sea resorts or in Istanbul, which are far away from Ankara. "