Introduction of Stuttgart
Industrial city and capital of Baden-Wurttemberg state on the Neckar River, 38 mi ESE of Karlsruhe. Settled since prehistoric times and the site of a Roman fort, it was founded c. 950 as a fortified manor and stud farm. It developed into a town, was chartered in the 13th century, and in 1320 became the residence of the counts, later dukes, and from 1806 kings, of Württemberg. It became capital of the duchy in 1495 and of the kingdom in 1806. It was the seat of the Reichstag and National Assembly at the time of the Kapp Putsch in 1920. An industrial center severely damaged by bombing in World War II, it was occupied by the French on April 22, 1945. Historic buildings include the 12th-century Stiftskirche, the 18th-century rococo Solitude Palace, the New Palace of 1746 to 1807, now an administration building, and the Rosenstein Palace of 1824 to 1829.