Introduction of Saratoga-Springs
City of Saratoga county, in E New York State, W ofthe Hudson River, 33 mi N of Albany. Namedafter the Indian word Saraghoga, meaning вЂњplace ofswift water,вЂќ the city land was ceded by the Indiansto the Dutch in 1684. In the 17th century it was frequentlythe scene of battles between English and French and Indian forces. The last battle of the SaratogacampaignвЂ”and the first and perhaps most decisivevictory of the American RevolutionвЂ”took place12 mi E of the city, near Stillwater, on Bemis Heightsin 1777. Here at Freeman's Farm New England forcesunder General Benedict Arnold decisively beat Britishtroops under General John Burgoyne on September19. Surrounded, Burgoyne again attacked at Freeman'sFarm on October 7. Once again Arnold routedhis forces. The British surrendered on October 17.Most of the credit for the Battle of Saratoga, however,went to Arnold's command er, General HoratioGates. The great American victory was thus a bitterslight for Arnold.The mansions and historical buildings date fromthe 19th century when the town was the playgroundof the rich, with horse racing, gambling, sportingevents, and the carbon mineral waters of the healthresort giving it its reputation. President Grant spentthe last weeks of his life nearby writing his memoirs,and Edgar Allan Poe wrote the first draft of TheRaven here in 1843.