Introduction of Samos
One of the Sporades Island s, in the Aegean Sea, near Turkey. Inhabited since the third millennium b.c.
and into the Bronze Age, the island was colonized by Ionian Greeks in the 11th century b.c. Under the rule of Polycrates in the sixth century b.c., it flourished to become one of the principal commercial and cultural centers of Greece. Residents during that period included the poet Anacreon, the sculptor Rhoecus, and the legendary fabulist, Aesop. It was also the birthplace of Pythagoras and Conon. Conquered by Persia toward the end of the sixth century b.c., it became independent in 479 b.c. and joined the Delian League, supporting Athens in the Peloponnesian Wars. In 390 b.c. the island revolted against Athens, which recaptured it in 365 b.c. and deported the entire population. The Samians resettled the island in 321 b.c. by permission of Alexand er the Great.
The island then passed back and forth among Antigonids of Macedon, Ptolemies of Egypt, and Pergamum. In 129 b.c. it was joined to the Roman province of Asia. It was plundered several times by Roman governors or factions of the first century b.c.
It was part of the eparchy of the Cyclades under the Byzantine Empire. During much of the later Middle Ages it was held by Genoa until it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1475. Before it passed to Greece in 1913, it was a semi-independent principality from 1832.