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Provence



Introduction of Provence
Region and former kingdom in SE France, bounded bythe Mediterranean Sea on the S, the Alps on the E,Burgundy on the N, and the RhС„ne River on the W.The area was inhabited by Celto-Ligurians as late asthe arrival of the Phoenicians and of the Greeks c. 600b.c. Its coast was colonized in the second century b.c.by the Romans and became part of Gallia Narbonensis,part of Gaul, in the first century b.c. It became acenter of Christianity just before the onset of the barbarianinvasions of the fifth to eighth centuries a.d.Provence first became a kingdom in 855 with thedeath of the Carolingian Lothair; it extended fromArles in the S to Basel in the N, including Vienne.Lothair's son, Charles, was unsuccessful in holding ittogether; and after his death in 863 Boso, a localnoble, subdued most of the region. In 879 he assumedthe title King of Provence and defied Carolingianattempts to oust him. Circa 950 Emperor Otto theGreat united it with the Kingdom of Burgundy, butlocalism and Saracen Muslim invasion soon tore itapart. In 972 the Saracens were finally ousted fromtheir stronghold of Fraxinetum.King Rudolf III (933-1032) united Provence and Trans-Jurane Burgundy and bequeathed it to EmperorHenry II. Emperor Conrad II (1024-39) seized thearea, however, and used it to buffer Italy from Frenchintervention. In 1226 the Albigensian Crusade, namedfor Albi, introduced French control of the area and resulted in the transfer of Avignon and the Marquissateof Provence to the papacy. It was later taken bythe French Crown and passed as an appanage toCharles of Anjou, brother of King Louis IX. Theregion belonged to the house of Anjou for most ofthe 13th to 15th centuries. It was rejoined to Francein 1481.ProvenР·al civilization was a major force in theMiddle Ages and combined Greek, Roman, Muslim,Spanish, and French influences in a unique and sophisticatedway. The area was long a haven of unorthodoxreligious and social views, while the ProvenР·al language,spread by the troubadours, was a major literaryforce, influencing French, Spanish, and Italian.Dante and Petrarch were heavily indebted to it.Region and former kingdom in SE France, bounded bythe Mediterranean Sea on the S, the Alps on the E,Burgundy on the N, and the RhС„ne River on the W.The area was inhabited by Celto-Ligurians as late asthe arrival of the Phoenicians and of the Greeks c. 600b.c. Its coast was colonized in the second century b.c.by the Romans and became part of Gallia Narbonensis,part of Gaul, in the first century b.c. It became acenter of Christianity just before the onset of the barbarianinvasions of the fifth to eighth centuries a.d.Provence first became a kingdom in 855 with thedeath of the Carolingian Lothair; it extended fromArles in the S to Basel in the N, including Vienne.Lothair's son, Charles, was unsuccessful in holding ittogether; and after his death in 863 Boso, a localnoble, subdued most of the region. In 879 he assumedthe title King of Provence and defied Carolingianattempts to oust him. Circa 950 Emperor Otto theGreat united it with the Kingdom of Burgundy, butlocalism and Saracen Muslim invasion soon tore itapart. In 972 the Saracens were finally ousted fromtheir stronghold of Fraxinetum.King Rudolf III (933-1032) united Provence and Trans-Jurane Burgundy and bequeathed it to EmperorHenry II. Emperor Conrad II (1024-39) seized thearea, however, and used it to buffer Italy from Frenchintervention. In 1226 the Albigensian Crusade, namedfor Albi, introduced French control of the area and resulted in the transfer of Avignon and the Marquissateof Provence to the papacy. It was later taken bythe French Crown and passed as an appanage toCharles of Anjou, brother of King Louis IX. Theregion belonged to the house of Anjou for most ofthe 13th to 15th centuries. It was rejoined to Francein 1481.ProvenР·al civilization was a major force in theMiddle Ages and combined Greek, Roman, Muslim,Spanish, and French influences in a unique and sophisticatedway. The area was long a haven of unorthodoxreligious and social views, while the ProvenР·al language,spread by the troubadours, was a major literaryforce, influencing French, Spanish, and Italian.Dante and Petrarch were heavily indebted to it.

Provence Images