Introduction of Plovdiv
Commercial and manufacturing city, capital of Plovdiv province, on the Maritsa River, 80 mi SE of Sofia, S central Bulgaria. An old Thracian settlement, it was taken in 341 b.c. by Philip II of Macedon and in 46 b.c. by the Romans, who made it the capital of Thrace. It was ravaged several times in the Middle Ages, was taken by the Turks in a.d. 1364, and became the Russian capital of Eastern Rumelia from 1878 to 1885. In 1885 it joined Bulgaria. It has been shaken by earthquakes on several occasions, especially in 1818 and 1928. The ruins of its ancient city walls and a 13th-century fortress remain.