Map Page 1113 Area 489,191 square mi (1,267,000 square km) Population 11,058,590 Capital Niamey Highest Point 6,634 ft (2,022 m) Lowest Point 656 ft (200 m) GDP per capita $800 Primary Natural Resources uranium, coal, iron ore, tin.
A LANDLOCKED republic in West Africa, Niger is bordered by ALGERIA to the northwest, MALI and BURKINA FASO to the west, BENIN to the southwest, NIGERIA to the south, CHAD to the east, and LIBYA to the northeast.
Its capital, Niamey, is the largest city; other urban centers are Agadez, Maradi, Tahoua, and Zinder.
Niger's climate and terrain rank among the hottest and driest in the world, since four-fifths of the country consists of desert; the remainder is dry savannah.
Less than 4 percent of the land is arable.
Only one major river, the Niger, runs through the southwest.
Niger's population is largely rural and engaged in pastoralism or subsistence agriculture.
The majority of the population lives in the south.
The Hausa, Niger's largest ethnic group, are 56 percent of the population, followed by the Djerma (Zarma) at 22 percent, and the Beri Beri (Kanouri) at 4.3 percent.
In the northern deserts live the Fula/Fulani, who make up 8.5 percent of the country's population, followed by the Tuareg at 8 percent, with 1.2 percent represented by Arabs, Toubou, and Gourmantche.
Niger is ranked amongst the poorest countries in the world, and is heavily dependent upon foreign aid for basic needs.
The country's economy has taken a recent downturn because of the decreasing demand for uranium, which was Niger's largest export.
Neolithic remains have been found in Niger, and the Air Massif was explored by the Romans in the first century C.E.
Major trans-Saharan trading states were established from the 11th to the 16th century by the Tuareg (Agadez), the Kanuri (Bilma in eastern Niger), and the Hausa (Zinder.) Much of Niger fell under the control of the Songhai Empire throughout the 15th and 16th centuries; eastern and southern Niger were annexed by Bornu after the fall of the Songhai Empire, and the Djerma settled in southwest Niger in the 17th century.
The Fulani gained control of southern Niger in the early 19th century during the jihad of Usman dan Fodio.
The French made Niger a colonial holding in 1885 then established military posts in south Niger, but because of Tuareg resistance, Agadez along with much of the north did not fall under French control until 1904.
Niger stayed a colony until the late 1950s, gaining full independence in 1960.
Since independence, Niger has undergone a series of crises.
The 1960s saw relative stability despite rebel insurgencies.
Niger's economy then plummeted during the Sahelian drought of 1968-75, which destroyed much of Niger's livestock and agricultural resources and prompted a military coup.
During the 1980s, the uranium boom boosted Niger's economy but led to huge disparities in wealth that caused civil unrest.
The 1990s saw armed conflict with the Tuareg in the north, several changes to the government, and the assassination of military dictator Ibrahim Bare Mainassara in 1999.
France suspended aid to Niger following the assassination, which prompted Niger to hold free elections and create a civil government.
- You can now apply for Australian Visa through the Internet
"Country entry permit application has become facilitated and the procedure itself takes less time.
Starting from October 1 this year this new system allows to apply for visa online 24/7, including holidays.
Electronic system makes possible not to visit the consulate to apply for the entry permit and you no longer need to mail papers. Moreover, the authorized individuals for applying from the applicant are free to use this system to apply for a visa instead of the applicant.
You are able to verify your application status through the Internet and when you get the entry permit to Australia all the documents will be sent either to your e-mail address or by a registered letter on the mailing address specified in the application form. You will need to take the received document with you and be able to show it if needed. However, it is noted that the airline company will be aware whether you have got the Australian visa or not (airport staff have an access to the electronic data system, which will also include information about received entry permits) and therefore you may not show your visa at passport control and during the boarding. "
- Sightseeing in Greece will become much more expensive
"Greek authorities reported about a sharp increase in price for visiting museums and other places of interest around the country. In particular, starting from January 1, 2016 the ticket price at Acropolis will reach 52 euro. Today the Athens main attraction costs only 12 euro.
The entrance ticket price to the sanctuary of Olympia and Knossos ruins will be raised twice. Since the beginning of the next year 200 museums located all around the country will also increase the ticket price.
However, the Greek authorities note that such high prices are likely to be up to date only during the summer tourist season. "