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New-England



Introduction of New-England
Region in the extreme NE of the country, consistingof six states: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts,New Hampshire, Rhode Island , and Vermont.Known as Nurembega on early charts, CaptainJohn Smith, the English explorer, saw the region in1614 and named it New England . It was the secondregion of permanent English settlement in NorthAmerica, preceded only by Virginia. The region was,in fact, officially named Northern Virginia by a grantof James I in 1606. In 1620 the Pilgrims established acolony at Plymouth, in present Massachusetts. In1686 the English government formed the Dominionof New England , comprising all the present statesexcept Vermont, but this arrangement lasted onlyuntil 1689.The enterprising New England ers, who came tobe called “Yankees,” made the region a busy shipbuilding,trading, fishing, and whaling center. At thetime of the American Revolution they were especiallypatriotic, but during the War of 1812, when commercewas hurt, a convention at Hartford, Connecticut,considered secession; nevertheless, NewEngland ers took an active part in the expansion intothe Northwest Territory. America's IndustrialRevolution began early here, along river courses suchas the Merrimack or Naugatuck, and in textile centerssuch as Lowell, Massachusetts or Waterbury,Connecticut. For much of the 19th century, NewEn gland led the nation in culture, education, and devotion to humanitarian movements, such as theabolition of slavery, the area around Boston, Massachusetts,being particularly rich in achievement.Major cities in New England are Hartford, NewHaven, and Waterbury, Connecticut; Augusta, Bangor,and Portland , Maine; Boston, Springfield,and Worcester, Massachusetts; Manchester and Portsmouth, New Hampshire; Providence, RhodeIsland ; Burlington, Montpelier, and Rutland ,Vermont.Island nation of NW Europe, it is the largest politicaldivision of the United Kingdom. Its capital, London,is also the capital of the United Kingdom. Separatedfrom mainland Europe and France by theEnglish Channel, England has a proud historicaltradition as a powerful maritime nation and was formerlythe nucleus of a worldwide colonial empire.The English have made a substantial contribution tothe development of Western civilization, not least inthe creation of a parliamentary system of governmentthat has been emulated throughout the world.Home of a succession of Neolithic, Bronze, and Iron Age cultures, exemplified by Stonehenge,En gland was invaded by Rome under Julius Caesar in55 b.c.; although the Roman conquest of Britain wasnot begun in earnest until the invasion under Claudiusin a.d. 43. By the end of the first century all of England was under Roman control and was to remain sofor the next 300 years despite occasional uprisings, ofwhich the most important had been that of the Iceni,a British tribe, under Boadicea in a.d. 61. During theRoman occupation, cities were founded, trade flourished,and a great wall was built by Hadrian to keepout the Picts from the North. As barbarian invasionsthreatened other parts of the empire, however, Romantroops were withdrawn, and Britain was left unprotectedagainst the invasions of the Anglo-Saxons and Jutes.By the end of the fifth century a.d., the newinvaders had begun to settle and form kingdoms, ofwhich Wessex was to emerge as the most powerfulin the ninth century. At the same time, easternEn gland was continually threatened by Viking invadersfrom Denmark, and although the Danes wereinitially defeated by Alfred, king of Wessex, by 1016the Danish king Canute controlled all of England .When the Danish line died out in 1042, the Wessexdynasty was restored with the accession of Edwardthe Confessor.England was again invaded in 1066, this time byWilliam the Conqueror, duke of Normand y, whodefeated the English king Harold at the Battle ofHastings, ending the Anglo-Saxon period and beginningthe Norman. Under the Norman kings centralgovernment was strengthened and the feudal systemfirmly established to facilitate administration. Theaccession of the Anjevin Henry II Plantagenet in 1154brought further French land s to the English thronethrough his marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine. In1171 the conquest of Ireland was begun. Wales wasconquered by Edward I in 1282, and in 1337 England began the long military struggle with France known asthe Hundred Years' War. Despite victories at Crecyin 1346 and Agincourt in 1415, England was unableto retain possession of her French land s after Joan ofArc raised the siege of Orleans in 1428 and helpedrally French nationalism, and by 1453 England hadwithdrawn, except from Calais. The collapse of thefeudal system was hastened in the 14th century by thenew economic and social forces and the new demand sof warfare and administration. Between 1455 and 1485 the throne of England was contested by thehouses of York and Lancaster in the Wars of theRoses, which decimated the nobility and ended withthe accession of the Tudor king Henry VII, after hisvictory over Richard III at Bosworth Field.Under the Tudor kings political stability wasrestored, and in the 16th century the Protestant Reformationreached England , culminating in HenryVIII's break with the papacy after his marriage toAnne Boleyn in 1533 and the establishment of theChurch of England . During the reign of Elizabeth I(1558-1603) English explorers visited the NewWorld, and the eastern Spice Island s and the country'sgrowing commercial and maritime interests ledto increased confrontation with Spain. The SpanishArmada, sent to invade England , was beaten in theEnglish Channel by Admiral Charles Howard and later destroyed by storms in 1588. At the same timethe Elizabethan Age was a period of great intellectualand artistic achievement in drama, poetry, music, and architecture.The accession of the Stuart king James I unitedScotland and England under one crown. Howeverthe Stuart kings were beset by financial difficulties.Charles I's insistence on the divine right of kings and his disregard for parliamentary government causedrelations between king and Parliament to deterioratesharply, so that in 1642 civil war broke out betweenRoyalists and Parliamentarians. The decisive battlesof the war, Marston Moor of 1644 and Naseby in1645, were victories for Parliament, and by 1648 theRoyalist cause was lost. Charles I was executed in1649, and the leader of the Parliamentarians, OliverCromwell, was made Lord Protector in 1653.The Protectorate lasted until 1660, when Parliamentinvited Charles II to return to the throne fromexile, beginning the Restoration Period. However, theold differences between Parliament and the Stuartkings and between Protestants and Catholics, surfacedagain and after the Glorious Revolution of1688, which expelled James II Stuart, the throne wasoffered to Protestant William of Orange and his wife,Mary, James's daughter. They reigned within the constitutionalframework created by the Bill of Rights of1689, which limited the powers of the monarchy and gave Parliament supremacy. In 1714, after the deathof Ann, William and Mary's daughter, Parliamentinvited George of Hanover to rule, initiating the presentHanoverian dynasty.In 1707 England and Scotland became the UnitedKingdom of Great Britain by the Act of Union. ThereafterEngland 's history is largely synonymous with that of Great Britain. Throughout the 18th centuryGreat Britain gradually acquired a vast overseasempire. By the Peace of Utrecht in 1713, whichended the War of the Spanish Succession, Great Britaingained territory in Canada from France and Gibraltar and Minorca from Spain. British successcontinued during the Seven Years' War of 1756 to1763. In Canada, Quebec was captured in 1759 fromthe French, and in India French power was destroyedat the battles of Plassey in 1757 and of Pondicherryin 1761. The Treaty of Paris of 1763 confirmedGreat Britain as the chief colonial power in theworld, and by the end of the 18th century its colonizationof Australia had begun. Great Britain's militarysupremacy was, however, effectively challengedduring the American Revolution, from 1775 to 1783.In 1775, 13 British colonies of North Americarevolted against colonial rule and , aided by theFrench, finally achieved independence after defeatingthe British at the Battle of Yorktown in 1781. TheUnited States of America was then formed.During the Napoleonic Wars, British navalsupremacy was a decisive factor in the struggle tocontain imperial France. Napoleon's plan to invadeGreat Britain was thwarted by the destruction of hisfleet on October 21, 1805, at Trafalgar by the Britishfleet under Admiral Horatio Nelson, who died inthe battle. British and other armies under the duke ofWellington were responsible for Napoleon's defeat inthe Peninsular War and for the ultimate collapse ofNapoleonic France at Waterloo in 1815.Meanwhile at home rapid industrialization wastransforming Great Britain into the world's firstindustrial nation. During the Regency period and beyond the restructuring of the country's economiclife led to demand s for political reform, which weremet in 1832 and 1867 by the Reform Bills. Theseextended the franchise to the middle and urban workingclasses. During the reign of Queen Victoria, from1837 to 1901, Great Britain pursued a dynamic and aggressive foreign policy, expand ing her Indianempire and fighting in the Crimean War of 1853 to1856 against Russia. Under the queen's prime ministerDisraeli, large parts of Africa and Afghanistanwere colonized.Increasingly, Great Britain's colonial programconflicted with the interests of Germany, and in1914, allied with France and Russia, Great Britainwent to war. During World War I, British troopsplayed a major role on the Western Front, but thecost was great, and after the defeat of Germany in1918, the country was drained of resources and hadlost an entire generation. The world recession of thelate 1920s and early 1930s aggravated the country'seconomic difficulties.After the failure of attempts to appease Hitler'sGermany, Great Britain was once again involved inwar with Germany in 1939. Threatened with invasionafter the fall of France, it achieved air superiority in theBattle of Britain and thus kept the country intact as abase for the eventual Allied offensive against occupiedEurope in 1943 and 1944. With Germany defeated in1945, Great Britain was again faced with the problemof rebuilding a shattered economy. Demand s for independencewere heard from many parts of the empire,beginning in 1947 when India was divided into thetwo independent states of Pakistan and India. Theempire was succeeded by the Commonwealth ofNations. At home Labour governments presided overthe nationalization of a large sector of the economy,and in 1972 Great Britain became a member of theEuropean Common Market. In the early 1970s oil wasdiscovered in the North Sea and Britain became amajor oil producer.In 1979, after years of economic stagnation, AConservative government under Margaret Thatcherwas elected. Thatcher privatized industry and brokemuch of the power of the unions. In 1982, Argentinainvaded the Falkland Island s, citing longstand ingterritorial claims, but Britain won a quick and decisivenaval victory. Thatcher and the Conservatives wonelections in 1983 and 1987. In 1984, Britain and France began digging the Channel Tunnel in a projectthat was completed in 1994. Thatcher resigned in1990 over issues of European integration and JohnMajor took over as prime minister and led the Conservativesto election victory 1992. Britain was a full participantin the Gulf War of 1991, and continued to

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