Introduction of Mumbai
Capital city of Maharashtra state, in W central India, on the Arabian Sea, a major center of finance and commerce on the island s of Mumbai and Salsette, just off the coast. The first settlement on Mumbai Island was in the 13th century a.d., though there were far earlier centers in the area. Mumbai remained under Hindu control until 1348, when it was captured by a Muslim force. It was ceded to Portugal in 1534 and finally to the English in 1661, who called it Bombay. From 1668 to 1858 it was run by the En glish, then British, East India Company, when it rapidly developed as a cotton-spinning and -weaving center, especially during the American Civil War, when cotton was much in demand . Bombay state, of which the city was a part, was divided into the states of Gujarat and Maharashtra in 1960. Mumbai is India’s major port and industrial center.