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Mainz



Introduction of Mainz
City of Rhineland -Palatinate on the Rhine River,at the mouth of the Main River, 20 mi WSW ofFrankfurt am Main. One of the oldest of Germancities, it grew on the site of a Roman camp foundedby Drusus in the first century b.c. and was destroyedseveral times by barbarians until Frankish rule wasestablished. In 747 it was made the seat of the firstGerman archbishop, St. Boniface. Later archbishopsadded considerable territory, which they ruled asprinces of the Holy Roman Empire. They had precedenceover other electors and crowned the Germankings. Under them, “Golden Mainz” flourished as acommercial and cultural center of the RhenishLeague. Mainz had one of the oldest Jewish settlementsin Germany. It was the home of JohannesGutenberg (1397-1468), who made it the first printingcenter of Europe. It was occupied by French and Swedes during the Thirty Years' War and by France,which took it in 1793 after a long siege. It was cededto France by the treaties of Campo Formio of 1797and Luneville of 1801. The Congress of Vienna in1815 made Mainz a federal fortress of the GermanConfederation and awarded it with Rhenish Hesseto the grand duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt. In 1816 itwas made the provincial capital of Rhenish Hesse and from 1873 to 1918 was a fortress of the German Confederationand after that of the Reich. Severely damagedin World War II, it has been rebuilt. Notablebuildings include a six-towered Romanesque cathedralconsecrated in 1069 and restored in the 19th century;a Renaissance-style electoral palace of the 17thand 18th centuries, now an art gallery and museum;the church of St. Peter of the 18th century; and theUniversity of Mainz, founded in 1477, discontinued in1816 when the French left, and reestablished in 1946as the Johannes Gutenberg University. From 1918 to1930 the university was the headquarters of the Frencharmy of occupation following World War I.City of Rhineland -Palatinate on the Rhine River,at the mouth of the Main River, 20 mi WSW ofFrankfurt am Main. One of the oldest of Germancities, it grew on the site of a Roman camp foundedby Drusus in the first century b.c. and was destroyedseveral times by barbarians until Frankish rule wasestablished. In 747 it was made the seat of the firstGerman archbishop, St. Boniface. Later archbishopsadded considerable territory, which they ruled asprinces of the Holy Roman Empire. They had precedenceover other electors and crowned the Germankings. Under them, “Golden Mainz” flourished as acommercial and cultural center of the RhenishLeague. Mainz had one of the oldest Jewish settlementsin Germany. It was the home of JohannesGutenberg (1397-1468), who made it the first printingcenter of Europe. It was occupied by French and Swedes during the Thirty Years' War and by France,which took it in 1793 after a long siege. It was cededto France by the treaties of Campo Formio of 1797and Luneville of 1801. The Congress of Vienna in1815 made Mainz a federal fortress of the GermanConfederation and awarded it with Rhenish Hesseto the grand duchy of Hesse-Darmstadt. In 1816 itwas made the provincial capital of Rhenish Hesse and from 1873 to 1918 was a fortress of the German Confederationand after that of the Reich. Severely damagedin World War II, it has been rebuilt. Notablebuildings include a six-towered Romanesque cathedralconsecrated in 1069 and restored in the 19th century;a Renaissance-style electoral palace of the 17thand 18th centuries, now an art gallery and museum;the church of St. Peter of the 18th century; and theUniversity of Mainz, founded in 1477, discontinued in1816 when the French left, and reestablished in 1946as the Johannes Gutenberg University. From 1918 to1930 the university was the headquarters of the Frencharmy of occupation following World War I.

Mainz Images