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Magdeburg



Introduction of Magdeburg
The capital of Saxony Anhalt and one of the mostimportant inland ports of the country, located on theElbe River, 82 mi WSW of Berlin. First mentionedas a trading settlement in a.d. 805, under EmperorOtto I it became a base for the Germanization of theWendish territories. It was made an archiepiscopalsee in the 960s, with the archbishops of Magdeburgruling a large territory as princes of the Holy RomanEmpire. It burned down in 1188 but was an importantcommercial center by the 13th century and received a charter that was a model for hundreds oftowns in Germany, Austria, Bohemia, and Poland .These charters provided for an elected council, localcourts of justice, and other local freedoms. It was amember of the Hanseatic League for nearly 200years. The city accepted the Reformation in 1524 and in 1531 joined the League of Schmalkalden and continued its resistance to Emperor Charles V untilits fall in 1551 to Maurice of Saxony. On May 20-21,1631, it was sacked and burned during the ThirtyYears' War. Its destruction led to stronger alliancesamong Protestant rulers. It was rebuilt after the Peaceof Westphalia in 1648, which also transferred bothcity and archbishopric to the electorate of Brand enburg.An important Prussian fortress from the late17th century, it was taken by the French in 1806 and returned to Prussia in 1814. Heavily bombed inWorld War II, it was taken by the Allies on April 18-19, 1945. Notable buildings include an 11th-centuryRomanesque church and a 13th-century cathedral. Itwas the birthplace of Otto von Guericke (1602-86),the physicist and inventor of the Magdeburg hemispheres,which demonstrated air pressure; of the composerG. P. Telemann (1681-1767); and of Baron vonSteuben, the Prussian general who fought in theAmerican Revolution.The capital of Saxony Anhalt and one of the mostimportant inland ports of the country, located on theElbe River, 82 mi WSW of Berlin. First mentionedas a trading settlement in a.d. 805, under EmperorOtto I it became a base for the Germanization of theWendish territories. It was made an archiepiscopalsee in the 960s, with the archbishops of Magdeburgruling a large territory as princes of the Holy RomanEmpire. It burned down in 1188 but was an importantcommercial center by the 13th century and received a charter that was a model for hundreds oftowns in Germany, Austria, Bohemia, and Poland .These charters provided for an elected council, localcourts of justice, and other local freedoms. It was amember of the Hanseatic League for nearly 200years. The city accepted the Reformation in 1524 and in 1531 joined the League of Schmalkalden and continued its resistance to Emperor Charles V untilits fall in 1551 to Maurice of Saxony. On May 20-21,1631, it was sacked and burned during the ThirtyYears' War. Its destruction led to stronger alliancesamong Protestant rulers. It was rebuilt after the Peaceof Westphalia in 1648, which also transferred bothcity and archbishopric to the electorate of Brand enburg.An important Prussian fortress from the late17th century, it was taken by the French in 1806 and returned to Prussia in 1814. Heavily bombed inWorld War II, it was taken by the Allies on April 18-19, 1945. Notable buildings include an 11th-centuryRomanesque church and a 13th-century cathedral. Itwas the birthplace of Otto von Guericke (1602-86),the physicist and inventor of the Magdeburg hemispheres,which demonstrated air pressure; of the composerG. P. Telemann (1681-1767); and of Baron vonSteuben, the Prussian general who fought in theAmerican Revolution.

Magdeburg Images