LUXOR IS LOCATED on the banks of the middle¶reaches of the NILE RIVER, in Qena governorate, eastcentral¶EGYPT.
Approximately, 440 mi (700 km) south¶of Cairo, it is a bustling city with a population of about¶150,000.
As a modern city, it caters to tourists who are¶attracted to the famous archaeological sites that attest¶to Egypt's rich history.
These are present in the nearby¶Valley of the Kings and in Denderah and Abydos just¶to the north, as well as in Luxor itself.
The city comprises¶three areas: the City of Luxor on the east bank of¶the Nile, Thebes (also known by the ancients as Waset)¶on the opposite bank, and Karnak to the north.¶Luxor was the capital of Middle Egypt for 1500¶years.
It became prominent in the 21st century B.C.E.;¶as Thebes it maintained its status as capital until 661¶B.C.E.
when it was attacked by the Assyrians.
Its significance¶in the ancient world is recorded by Homer, the¶famous Greek poet who lived in the 8th century B.C.E.,¶as "the city of a hundred gates." It survived as an influential¶center until it was destroyed by the Romans in¶30 B.C.E.
Although it never fully recovered, Luxor has¶been a place of interest, almost of pilgrimage, for centuries¶and it ranks as one of the first true tourist destinations.¶There is some evidence for settlement in the Luxor¶area relating to the Old Kingdom of ancient Egypt¶which had its focus in Upper Egypt, notably in the Nile¶delta region where the Great Pyramids were constructed¶and where the capital, Memphis, was located.¶This period dates from 2686 B.C.E.
to 2181 B.C.E.
and is¶represented at Luxor by ancient tombs; one such¶necropolis is el-Khoka.
There may also have been a¶temple in Karnak, and it seems likely that Luxor (then¶Waset) was a provincial town.¶The Old Kingdom was followed by an Intermediate¶period from 2180 B.C.E.
to 2040 B.C.E., and then the¶Middle Kingdom from 2040 B.C.E.
to 1730 B.C.E.
During¶the Intermediate period, Luxor began to grow in¶size and significance under the direction of the 7th to¶9th dynasties of rulers and achieved capital status during¶the reign of Mentuhotep of the 11th dynasty, who¶once again unified Egypt into one kingdom.
He also¶constructed the temple at Deir el-Bahri on the west¶bank where his mortuary temple is also located.
Luxor¶(then Thebes) benefited from trade.
Its location, on the¶fertile bank of the Nile adjacent to Nubia and the eastern¶desert, was advantageous for the acquisition and¶control of resources being traded north to south and¶east to west.
There was a decline in its political status¶during the 12th dynasty, as the ruler Amenemhat 1¶conferred capital status on El-Lisht close to Memphis,¶but Luxor's religious influence escalated as the local¶god, Amun, became a principal deity throughout the¶kingdom.
The remains of a temple to Amun, dating¶from this period, are present at Karnak.¶The advent of the New Kingdom, dating from¶1552 B.C.E.
to 1069 B.C.E., saw Luxor achieve renown¶as a religious center.
It had become a center of life and¶death.
Active worship in its many temples was juxtaposed¶with the numerous and rich tombs and mortuary¶temples excavated in the cliffs of the west bank.
Included¶in the latter are the mortuary temples of Rameses¶II and Seti I as well as the remains of the temple of¶Amenhotep III.
Further west into the desert, so as not¶to use fertile land, lie the tombs of the Valley of the¶Kings that have helped to make Egypt so famous.
Not¶least of these is the tomb of the boy king, Tutankhamen¶of the 18th dynasty, who ruled Egypt from 1361 B.C.E.¶to 1352 B.C.E.
This was discovered in 1922 by Lord ¶George Carnarvon and fueled much renewed interest¶in Egypt and its history.
On the east bank, Luxor and¶Karnak became the location of major temple complexes¶whose architecture and inscriptions are testament¶to the stonecraft and building technology of the¶Middle and New Kingdoms.
The majesty of the temples¶is encapsulated in the 134 huge columns of Karnak¶temple's Hypostyle Hall.
The temple of Luxor was¶built by Amenophis III.¶Luxor retained some importance during the Late¶Period from 664 B.C.E.
to 30 B.C.E., but its golden age¶was over.
Much later, Christian churches, Islamic¶mosques, and a tourist infrastructure added to the heterogeneity¶of one of the world's oldest cities.
- The court has prohibited the crow to fly because of stealing tourists’ valuable things
"The British Court has issued the decision on the case of the crow that was violating public order. The royal bird Izzy that lives in the Knaresborough castle in North Yorkshire is famous for being fond of stealing cellphones and cameras from careless tourists.
The Court has restricted the crow to fly until the violator changes its conduct. The way it will be monitored stays unknown.
It is interesting that besides stealing an 8-year crow was also dropping the F-bombs. Probably these were the visitors of the castle who taught the crow to turn the air blue. An eight-year old Izzy has got a warning message for abusing people. "
- The smog has affected tourists’ plans in Thailand
"Several flights were canceled due to the smoke.
The wildfires are storming around in Indonesia, the smoke of which extends 100 km away. Due to the wind direction smog has covered Phuket and Samui, the Thai’s islands. It is said that the smoke is neither life nor health threatening for tourists. There is no burning smell as well. Nevertheless, the tourists are not recommended to go in for sports outdoors. One of the country’s media centre states that the Phuket Island community has sent an open letter to the authorities of Thailand asking about taking steps on the smog elimination. According to what they say, the south part of the country is covered by the poisonous smoke that can cause development of various diseases among the local population. Also the islanders say that smog crashes the tourists’ plans that they cannot fly out because of the flight cancellation. For instance, only five airplanes that took off from Bangkok flying to Phuket and Samui were asked to make a reverse just in the air because of the low visibility conditions. "