Map Page 1131 Area 998 square mi (2,586 square km) Population 454,157 (2004) Capital Luxembourg Highest Point 1,834 ft (559 m) Lowest Point 436 ft (133 m) GDP per capita $55,100 Primary Natural Resources arable land.
LUXEMBOURG IS a small LANDLOCKED western European country, within the EUROPEAN UNION (EU), and given its small population size, the country does not contain any large urban centers.
After Luxembourg City, about 75,000 persons, the next largest settlements are Esch-sur-Alzette (27,000), Differdange (18,000), and Dudelange (17,000).
Split into three administrative regions (Diekirch, Grevenmacher, and Luxembourg), Luxembourg is governed by a constitutional monarchy.
Bordered by GERMANY to the east (the border being formed by the Our, Sure and Moselle rivers), FRANCE to the south, and BELGIUM to the west and north, the country has been historically and culturally influenced by countries neighboring it.
Linguistically at least, the neighboring influence persists.
Legal and political matters, for instance, are still written in French, while police records are noted in German.
Officially, three languages (Luxembourgish-a mix of Frankish and old German-French, and German) are spoken in Luxembourg.
In terms of physical geography, Luxembourg has a temperate climate that can be characterized by cool, sometimes cold winters and warm summers.
The northern part of the country forms part of the Ardennes hill range and has an undulating topography.
The highest point is some 1,834 ft (559 m) above sea level, although the other regions of the country may be described as being somewhat hilly as well.
In terms of land use, about 25 percent of land is cultivated, a further 20 percent is used for pasture, and 20 percent is wooded.
Given its small spatial extent, Luxembourg has a relatively high population density, even though its urban places are not large demographically.
MODERN ECONOMICS In economic terms, Luxembourg may be characterized as a low-unemployment, low-inflation, and high-income society.
Industry, particularly steel, has historically been significant in Luxembourg but has in recent times been surpassed by the growth of other industries, such as rubber and chemicals, as well as the rise of the tertiary economic sector, especially the banking sector which is largely based in Luxembourg City.
Located at the junction of the Alzette and Petrusse rivers, Luxembourg City, the capital, is today a settlement of modern international banking repute and also the location of several European Union institutions.
These include the European Court of Justice, the European Investment Bank, and the Secretariat of the European Parliament.
Because of its exceptional location and the surrounding natural environment, Luxembourg City has historically been a place of military significance.
As an area noted in written history, Luxembourg dates from the 10th century when it was known as Lucilinburhuc ("little fortress").
At this time Siegfried, Count of Ardennes, erected a castle (now in Luxembourg City).
From 1506 to 1890, Luxembourg formed part of the territories of numerous European countries, including SPAIN, France, AUSTRIA, and the NETHERLANDS, and it was not until 1815 that the process of independence in Luxembourg began, a consequence of the forming of a Grand Duchy by the Congress of Vienna.
The Congress, held in 1814 and 1815, redrew the continent's political map following the defeat of Napoleonic France, and one of the principle results of the event, aside from the confirmation of France's loss of territories it had annexed between 1795 and 1810, was that the Luxembourg Grand Duchy was formed and the Netherlands became an independent kingdom.
As part of this Europe-wide development, the Luxembourg Duchy was handed to the Dutch monarch, William I.
In 1838, political autonomy was granted to by the Netherlands, yet it was not until 1890 that Luxembourg became independent as such from the Dutch, a result of the death of William III.
Upon his death William was succeeded by his daughter, but as only men could inherit the title of Grand Duke, it passed to another blood line of the Dutch royal house.
The throne thus was offered to William's cousin, Duke Adolf of Nassau, who subsequently became Grand Duke Adolf I of Luxembourg.
Today Luxembourg remains the world's only grand duchy.

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Last News

- Will it be possible for tourists to access the most Jerusalem’s holy sites?
"Police is limiting the access beyond the fortress walls of the Old City due to the following clashes between Israelis and Palestinians.
Following the accident in which a Palestinian has killed two people on the street in Jerusalem and his brother has stabbed the Israeli teenager the mass uprisings have begun. Being afraid of the clashes between Israelis and Palestinians police has made a decision that only local residents are allowed to visit the Old City. This also refers to the tourists only if they stayed in the hotels located in the old part of the city.
Other tourists wishing to enter the Old City will not be able to visit it. And this is the place where the main Holy land sites are located: the temple “of the Holy Sepulcher”, the Wailing Wall, the Via Dolorosa, the Citadel of David with its museum of city history, crusaders’ street, the Temple Mount with the Al-Aqsa golden-domed mosque. The authorities report that it is likely that tomorrow everyone will be welcomed to enter."

- Sightseeing in Greece will become much more expensive
"Greek authorities reported about a sharp increase in price for visiting museums and other places of interest around the country. In particular, starting from January 1, 2016 the ticket price at Acropolis will reach 52 euro. Today the Athens main attraction costs only 12 euro.
The entrance ticket price to the sanctuary of Olympia and Knossos ruins will be raised twice. Since the beginning of the next year 200 museums located all around the country will also increase the ticket price.
However, the Greek authorities note that such high prices are likely to be up to date only during the summer tourist season. "