Introduction of Long-Island
Island , approximately 120 mi long, in New YorkState, just SE of Manhattan, with Long Island Sound and Connecticut to the N and the AtlanticOcean to the S. The island is in the shape of a fishwith its head in New York City and its fins the Northand South Forks. Nassau and Suffolk counties comprisethe E portion of the island ; the New York Cityboroughs of Brooklyn and Queens are on the Wend. Originally part of the Plymouth Colony, LongIsland was the site of both English and Dutch settlements,the latter concentrated in what is now Brooklyn.The 1650 Treaty of Hartford gave the area westof Oyster Bay to the Dutch, but after 1664 the entireisland was in English hand s. During the AmericanRevolution it was the scene of significant militaryactivity. In the Battle of Long Island , actually foughtthrough Brooklyn, begun August 27, 1776, BritishGeneral William Howe defeated Washington's forcesbut failed to destroy them. On August 30 the ContinentalArmy managed to retreat to Manhattan fromBrooklyn Heights.For many years Long Island was the site of farms,especially in Suffolk county, small towns, fishing villages,and large estates. Sag Harbor, on the SouthernFork, was a major whaling port in the 18th and 19th centuries. Walt Whitman and Theodore Rooseveltgrew up here. But in the early 20th century thearea began to undergo a vast transformation with thecoming of the auto and the rapid flight from the cities.Parks and parkways were built under the guidanceof New York State's вЂњmaster builder,вЂќ RobertMosesвЂ”especially of note was Jones Beach. AfterWorld War II the increasingly affluent descendants ofNew York City's population, beginning to make theircontribution to the nation's baby boom, foundgreener pastures on вЂњthe island вЂќ as new light industry,especially aircraft, provided a new economic base.SubdivisionsвЂ”the most famous was LevittownвЂ”convertedwestern Long Island into a huge suburban bedroomcommunity. At one time the country's fastestgrowing area, Long Island has begun to exhibit at itswestern end many of the very urban problemsвЂ”traffic,crime, and pollution, for exampleвЂ”that its residentssought to escape. Symbolic of its condition isthe Long Island Expressway, often called the world's вЂњlongest parking lot.вЂќ The eastern end, although aplayground for summer visitors, is still quite ruraland continues to harbor farms and coastal villagesreminiscent of New England .Sites of note on Long Island include BrookhavenNational Laboratories, a nuclear research facility;Roosevelt Field, where Charles A. Lindbergh beganhis historic solo flight across the Atlantic on May 20,1927; Port Jefferson, an early shipping and whalingport; and the towns of Southampton and EastHampton on the South Fork. Orient Point Lighthouseis on the tip of the North Point and MontaukPoint Lighthouse is on the tip of the South Fork.