Introduction of Innsbruck
City and capital of Tyrol state, on the Inn River, 85 mi SW of Salzburg. Strategically important since antiquity because of its position on transalpine trade routes at the north end of the Brenner Pass, it was established as a fortified town by 1180 and was capital of the Tyrol from c. 1420. Under Hapsburg rule from 1363 to 1918, it was a favorite city of Emperor Maximilian I (1459–1519) and of Empress Maria Theresa (1717–80). It was nearby that Tyrolese peasants under Andreas Hofer fought a heroic battle against French and Bavarian troops in 1809 during the Napoleonic Wars. It was severely damaged during World War II. The Golden Roof of the duke’s palace and the Imperial Church, where Maximilian is buried, are notable.