Introduction of Hanoi
Capital city of Vietnam, on the Red River, approximately 75 mi from the sea, with its port at Haiphong. Founded in a.d. 599, it was the seat of Chinese rulers from the seventh to 10th centuries, became the first capital of the new state of Vietnam in 939, and was a locus of contention between that state and China for the next five centuries. From 1428 to 1788 it was ruled by the Le dynasty. It was occupied by France in 1883 and made the capital of Tonkin, then of French Indochina from 1887 to 1946 during a period of industrial development. It was occupied by Japan and frequently bombed during World War II. From 1946 to 1954 it was the seat of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam and the scene of heavy fighting between the French and the Viet Minh. After France’s evacuation according to the Geneva Conference, Hanoi became the capital of North Vietnam, undergoing a period of great industrial expansion until the Vietnam War of 1965 to 1973. It was heavily bombed by the U.S. forces during this war, but its factories had been dismantled and moved elsewhere. After the war they were returned to facilitate a speedy reconstruction. There is an 11th-century Confucian temple here as well as the Pagoda of the Great Buddha and the Single-Pillar Pagoda.