Introduction of Elba
Island in the Tyrrhenian Sea, in Livorno province, six mi off the coast of Tuscany. The Etruscans and Romans mined iron ore on Elba, and the island was the site of a Roman naval base. Ruled by Pisa in the early Middle Ages, it passed to Genoa in 1290 and to Cosimo I de’ Medici, then grand duke of Florence, in 1548. Later ruled by Spain, Naples, and France, it was Napoleon’s place of exile in 1814–15 and was ruled by him as an independent principality. It was returned to Tuscany following the Battle of Waterloo, when Napoleon was exiled to St. Helena.