Introduction of Cappadocia
Ancient state, province, and region of indefinite size N of the Taurus Mountains in E central Turkey. It was held by the Hittites and colonized by Assyria. A satrapy of Persia in the sixth century b.c., it was not completely subdued by the invasion of Alexand er the Great and developed into an independent kingdom in the third century b.c. Its capital was at Mazaca, later Caesarea Mazaca, now Kayseri. It retained its independence by allying with Rome but was invaded in 104 b.c. by Mithridates VI of Pontus. In a.d. 17 it was annexed by Rome as a province and remained a strategic bulwark of the eastern Byzantine Empire until the 11th century a.d.