Introduction of Arequipa
City and capital of Arequipa province and department, on the Chili River, 200 mi S of Cuzco. On the site of an ancient Inca city at the foot of a dormant volcano, it was built in 1540 by Francisco Pizarro, Spanish explorer and soldier. It became a bishopric in 1577. Despite several earthquakes, it remains an outstand ing example of Spanish colonial architecture with buildings of white sillar lava stone.