LOCATED IN northeastern ALASKA and managed by the U.S.
Fish and Wildlife Service, the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) encompasses the largest diversity of wildlife of any protected area in the circumpolar north, earning it the nickname "the American Serengeti." Efforts to preserve the refuge began in 1960 with the establishment of the Arctic National Wildlife Range.
Following passage of the Alaskan Lands Act in 1980, the area was renamed the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge and its size expanded to 20 million acres (8 million hectares), approximately the size of SOUTH CAROLINA.
Included within the refuge are 8 million acres (3 million hectares) of wilderness land.
The ANWR is bounded to the east by CANADA and to the north by the Beaufort Sea.
At its seaward margin is the flat and treeless Arctic coastal plain, extending inland for 40 mi (64 km).
To the south of the coastal plains is the Brooks Range, an east-west band of mountains with several 9,000-ft (2,750-m) peaks.
The rugged glacial topography of the range is interspersed with ice fields and wide, steep-sided valleys.
An active layer of permafrost, or permanently frozen soil, is found in most areas of the refuge.
Permafrost extends downward to an average of 1,000 ft (300 m).
Some permafrost areas are underlain with patterned ground formed by polygons measuring 30 to 200 ft (9 to 61 m) in diameter.
The shape of polygons is influenced by spring meltwater seeping into surface cracks and freezing.
The climate of the coastal plain is classified as Arctic or sub-Arctic with cool, cloudy summers.
The average July temperature is 41 degrees F (5 degrees C ) and maximum temperatures rarely exceed 86 degrees F (30 degrees C).
Winters are extremely cold, with February averaging -4 degrees F (-20 degrees C).
High surface winds can result in windchill factors well below ambient temperatures.
The Arctic plain receives an average of less than 10 in (25 cm) of precipitation.
Two major biomes dominate the refuge: a northern boreal forest lying on the southern slope of the Brooks Range and Arctic tundra on the north slope.
The ANWR has wildlife species common to the Arctic and sub-Arctic.
More than 36 species of fish and nine marine mammals are represented in the refuge.
Open range provides unconfined areas for large herds of porcupine caribou that migrate 800 mi (1,280 km) in May and June to ancestral calving areas on the coastal plain.
In early July, they return to wintering areas to the south of the Brooks Range.
Dall sheep can be found on mountainsides and musk oxen near water sources on coastal plains.
Polar bears move onshore during the winter and return to sea ice in the spring months to hunt seals.
Other ANWR mammals include lynx, voles, lemmings, and wolves.
Proposals for petroleum drilling within the coastal plain have created controversy with regard to impacts on caribou and other wildlife in this Arctic region.
Bird nesting takes place between April and July.
Represented within the refuge are the golden eagle, peregrine falcon, sandpiper, and plover.
Migratory ducks and shorebirds begin collecting in lakes and lagoons in July to prepare for their migration to wintering areas in South America, Africa, Asia and the lower 48 U.S.
Ptarmigan, dippers, and gyrfalcons are among the few species that remain in the refuge during the long Arctic winter.
- Dubai is announcing another motor festival
"The Emirates invite everyone to take part in the holiday devoted to the car festival that takes place from November 10 to 21, 2015.
A 12-day festival offers all the guests in Dubai to see a drift show, have a look at the last car models and of course make a selfie. Tourists will also have a possibility to witness the grand motor parade, where retro cars, trucks and motorcycles will be present. Motor “march” will cover the central streets of the city.
Car owners will take part in the most unusual car contest. Tourists are free to see all those weird cars in the contest. An 80,000 sq m “iron horse” exhibition will be also held during the event. Tourists will also enjoy the Dubai international rally, which is an important part of the festival. You can have a chance to take a sit in the car you are dreaming of. "
- A tourist has robbed a Thai bank to buy a ticket home
"The Australian tourist had a great time in Thailand, as we can see. He has been staying in the South-East Asian country this man realized that he had spent all his money and now cannot get home.
In order to buy an air ticket he didn’t have a better idea, but to go and rob a bank. The Australian broke into one of the departments in the center of Bangkok city wearing a mask and with a gun in his hands, which then turned out to be a toy gun.
23-year old tourist got 170,000 baht from the tellers, but didn’t manage to hide: he was quickly arrested by the police. Being questioned the criminal explained that he took the extreme measure because he couldn’t fly back home.
Thai police was not affected by his story; and by the local law the thief faces up to 10 years jail. "