KNOWN AS THE Catherine Archipelago until 1900, the Aleutian Islands comprise some 150 islands in four groups, which are, in order of proximity to the mainland: the Fox, Andreanof, Rat, and Near Islands.
The name probably derives from the Chukchi word aliat, meaning "island." Geographically, the islands separate the Bering Sea from the PACIFIC OCEAN.
They extend in an arc about 1,600 mi (2,560 km) into the Bering Sea off the west coast of ALASKA, to which they belong politically.
Their total area is 6,821 square mi (17,666 square km) and the total population is approximately 12,050.
Geologically, the islands comprise limited sedimentary and metamorphic rocks but are mainly volcanic in origin and are located at the junction between the Pacific and North American tectonic plates.
They are characterized by volcanic peaks representing a continuation of the Aleutian range of mainland Alaska.
Some volcanic peaks remain active, including Makushin on Unalaska and Shishaldin on Unimak, which are the largest islands in the Fox group.
Climatically, the Aleutians are oceanic, with annual temperatures ranging on average from 30 degrees F (-1 degrees C) in January to 52 degrees F (11 degrees C ) in August.
There is a 135-day growing season between May and September and annual rainfall is 80 in (2.03 m) with rain occurring all year with abundant fog.
The natural vegetation is a mixture of Asian and American species comprising dwarf shrubs with grass-, sedge-, and herb-rich meadows in the lowlands and mosses, lichens, and alpine herbs in the uplands.
Most of the islands are within the Aleutian Biosphere Reserve and Wildlife Refuge, which contains a unique mixture of marine birds and mammals.
The islands were colonized at least 8,000 years ago by hunter-gatherers migrating east from Asia when sea levels were considerably lower than today.
The native people, the Ungangans, encountered by European explorers in the 1700s were named Aleuts.
In 1741, the first European arrivals were Vitus Bering, a Danish seafarer in Russian employ, and Alexei Chirikov; they captained separate ships and each discovered different islands.
Bering was shipwrecked and died on what is now called Bering Island in the adjacent Russianowned Komandorski Islands.
Thereafter, Siberian fur trappers established bases as Russia extended its influence in North America, leading to the exploitation of the Aleuts for labor and the large seal and otter populations for furs.
That ended with the transfer of Alaska to the United States in 1867.
Further development came with the discovery of gold in Nome in 1900 and the establishment of Dutch Harbor, Unalaska, as a shipping port.
JAPANESE OCCUPATION During World War II, the Aleutian Islands featured in hostilities between the United States and Japan.
A naval base was constructed at Dutch Harbor in 1942, and following its bombing, the Japanese occupied several islands but were routed in 1943 by U.S.
forces from bases on other islands.
Underground nuclear tests were carried out on Amchitka (Rat group) in the 1960s and early warning radar systems, pointing toward Soviet Russia, were constructed during the height of the Cold War.
Today, sheep and reindeer herding are part of the economy, with some production of market garden commodities.
Hunter-gatherer traditions involving hunting and fishing equipment, including basketry, are maintained by modern-day Aleuts.
Fishing and hunting of seal are overseen by the federal government and only Aleuts are allowed to undertake such activities.
- Allergic individuals would better avoid Czech restaurants
"The press reports that the majority of Czech restaurants do not point out the food ingredients that cause allergic reactions.
Nearly a third of cafes and restaurants “forget” to warn their clients or indicate allergic products in a wrong way. Mostly they do not specify the content of some types of crops, nuts and milk proteins. After the examination tested it turned out that 42 public places out of 114 violated the rules and didn’t provide full information about the dishes served.
The tourists, who suffer from allergies and who wishes to go to the Czech Republic it is recommended to stay on pins and needles and always carry some antihistaminic drugs in the pockets. "
- Titanic will be cruising in three years
"The ship, which is the copy of the infamous ship, will be first launched in 2018. The Australian billionaire Cleve Palmer made a decision in 2013 to recreate the Titanic that sank a century ago. It was planned that the ship should become a part of the Blue Star Line Company and make its first cruise in 2016. It was planned that Titanic 2 would have its precursor’s route from Southampton to New York.
However, according to the last information published the ship will be launched only in 2018 and its first cruise will be routed from Jiangsu to Dubai. As the press reports, the route was changed not because of the superstitious threat, but to arrange the collaboration with the Emirates. "